Understanding Confidentiality Requirements

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Readers ask often about protecting the privacy and confidentiality of students in the classroom. “Protecting student confidentiality” issues seem to get more ridiculous month by month.

Most parents think…because many schools tell them… that because of the law (FERPA) schools must protect the confidentiality of students in the classroom.

Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

The privacy rights in the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) relate to education records, not to an individual’s personal privacy.

Parents should take the time to learn what FERPA protects. Learn how the law defines “education records.”

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools October 2007 states:

Images of students captured on security videotapes that are maintained by the school’s law enforcement unit are not considered education records under FERPA. Accordingly, these videotapes may be shared with parents of students whose images are on the video and with outside law enforcement authorities, as appropriate.

Info from personal knowledge or observations can also be shared.

FERPA does not prohibit a school official from disclosing information about a student if the information is obtained through the school official’s personal knowledge or observation, and not from the student’s education records.

For example, if a teacher overhears a student making threatening remarks to other students, FERPA does not protect that information, and the teacher may disclose what he or she overheard to appropriate authorities.

More Information and Resources

Privacy, Confidentiality, and Education Records

Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act for Elementary and Secondary Schools (October 2007) about how to balance these two issues and discusses videos and school staff knowledge and observations.

Understanding the Confidentiality Requirements Applicable to IDEA Early Childhood Programs Frequently Asked Questions (FAQS) (October 2016)

IDEA/FERPA Confidentiality. Includes IDEA/FERPA Confidentiality Side by Side – Compares Part B of IDEA, Part C of IDEA, and FERPA. (See p. 8-11)

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my school accidently mailed my childs iep to someone else and their iep to me, what are the implications


The special education teacher created an email listing of all the special education students (first, last name) in the building, with the type of services they are getting next to their name: self-contained (Autism room), speech therapy, indirect services. The email was sent to the entire faculty in the school. The purpose of the email was so that all building teachers can identify special education students. Is it a breach of confidentiality considering that not all the teachers in the building have these students in their classrooms or have anything to do with them at all?


I am asking out of curiosity as a school-based occupational therapist. I am very careful to maintain confidentiality when discussing a student with a colleague or group of therapists–to brainstorm intervention ideas, for example. My question is not “Are we required to maintain student confidentiality”, rather, “Are therapists in the schools required to be HIPAA compliant?” As a former medical based OT, I understand HIPAA left and right as it applied to me in those settings, but schools are not considered a “covered entity” under HIPAA. There are several therapists in a discussion I am participating in who state that HIPAA applies to us in the schools. I’d be interested to hear what is actually the case. Thanks!


My child’s year- end IEP report was inadvertently mailed to the wrong address. It happened to be to a parent who I am of acquaintance with, and whose son is a peer/friend to my son.
Fortunately, she saw to it that I received the documents.
Is this legally a breach of privacy? It certainly feels as if it is, and could have had such a different outcome.


Is it a FERPA violation if a teacher and a principal are talking about private information about students in the principal’s office, with the door open, and one of the students overhears?


At our school site, our Administration is insisting that a Special Education classroom be used for an after school program for general education students. At other sites in our district, this is not allowed because even though all Special Education classrooms hold IEPs in a locked filing cabinet, there is still student information up on the walls of the classroom (as well as IEP documents which are in progress of being revised for upcoming meetings) which could potentially constitute a breech of privacy for students with special needs. Is there a law that the teacher of this Special Education classroom could show her Administrator to allow her classroom to be exempt from a general education after school program?



I am wondering if anyone can point me in the direction of any regulations around classroom spaces and confidentiality. In a school with an open space learning design (floor to ceiling glass walls, etc) are there laws that pertain to whether or not this visibility would break special education confidentiality laws? If parents, teachers, students etc., walk by and see a special education teacher instructing, does that identify those students on IEP’s? I hope that my question makes sense and I appreciate any feedback. Take care.


Confidentiality under federal special ed law deals with the sharing of records. There could be state rules about what you describe, but I doubt it, because it would be impossible to enforce.


Beth, there are no regulations that I know of off the top of my head. I don’t think you base identifying a students on an IEP based on a Special Education Teacher teaching. Hopefully this helps if not hopefully someone can point us both in the rights direction.


I requested to see videos involving my child and how the school mishandled the situations, etc. Would you please explain the meaning of the following: Educational records of “individual students are not “public records” and are excluded from release under the _________ Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) per the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99). For example, video that shows other students cannot be released because that video would be part of those students’ educational records and thus prohibited by FERPA from being released.” Thank you!


I am a high school special education teacher. Is it legal for teachers to use the full name of a special education student in an email containing sensitive information about that student? I need to be able to cite a law or regulation to this teacher. I requested she use only the initials and she insisted there is nothing wrong with using the full name of the student.


What is the concern with using the student’s actual name? Who is the teacher sending these emails to? I have heard this concern in the past, but can’t recall the reasoning, If someone (the email recipient) can (needs to) figure out who the student is by initials, what layer of protection does using initials give?


At my son’s high school in Oregon, the special ed program (Social Skills) is a graded, credit “class” and appears on high school transcripts. This seems a violation of his privacy/civil rights to me. Can I request removal of this from his transcript (I’m ok with it as a record)?

Concerned Mom

I am a teacher in a building where both of my special needs children’s first names and last initials were put on a “data wall” showing if they were on/above/below grade level for reading along with an identifying mark showing they are special education (all personnel in the building have access to this room). Is this wrong? I’m upset as a parent, but was told if I didn’t work in the building, I would not have known. Also, picture was taken by a county official and put on twitter where names are visible. Is there anything I can do?


I have a client (Kindergarten) who occasionally elopes. The parents have put an “Angel Sense” GPS on his person so they can track where he is throughout the day. This device also allows them to hear what is occurring in his environment, but does not record. The district has stated that he may not wear this device because it violates the privacy of his peers in the classroom. Would appreciate feedback on this.


Unless this is a violation of state laws, it does not sound like a violation of privacy. I suggest that the parent write to the principal, & special ed director or other administrator stating the need for the device & requesting approval of its use. If the school says no, ask for a letter from the school attorney stating that this is a violation of privacy.


SLP says she can’t tell me who my son is sitting with at lunch because of confidentiality. Really?


The school wouldn’t give us any details about a bullying incident, citing FERPA.


I’ve had the same issue in Florida. I received a copy of the bullying investigation report, it was practically blank. Cited FERPA. I’d like to know what the school knows so that I can advocate for my child.


What about peer editing? Would that be a FERPA violation, especially to a student with an IEP?


What is peer editing?


Peer editing is when another student corrects your work. In this case it was an essay.