Phonological processing refers to the ability to analyze speech or spoken language, from identifying individual words, to word parts or syllables, and then into the smallest parts called phonemes or speech sounds.1
Weaknesses in phonological processing skills are the leading cause of reading disabilities.
Phonological memory is where speech sounds are held before they are processed. It is important for learning, decoding, spelling, and vocabulary.
Phonological awareness refers to the awareness of speech sounds. It is the prerequisite skill for learning phonics. A child who has a weakness in phonological awareness is often describes as having dyslexia.
Rapid naming is the ability to name objects, colors, letters, and numbers aloud quickly while being timed. This is important for reading with fluency.
Assessing these skills make it possible to understand why a child has difficulty reading and how to design his instruction.
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP2) is the gold standard for phonological processing.
The CTOPP2 measures all three areas of phonological processing.