Wrightslaw  l  Wrightslaw Way Blog  l  IDEA 2004  l  Store  l  Yellow Pages for Kids

 Home > Reading > Tests & Assessments Pop-Up: Assessing Reading Difficulties and Disabilities

The Special Ed Advocate newsletter
It's Unique ... and Free!

Enter your email address below:

2019 Training Programs

Jan 25 - Long Island, NY

Feb 7 - Houston, TX

Feb 21 - Macon, GA

Feb 28 - DeKalb, IL

Mar 14 - Toledo, OH

Mar 22 - Louisville, KY

Full Schedule

Be a Hero ...

 Jason at Ft. Benning
... to a Hero
Learn more


Topics from A-Z
Free Newsletter
Seminars & Training
Yellow Pages for Kids
Press Room

Books & Training

Wrightslaw Storesecure store lock
  Advocate's Store
  Student Bookstore
  Exam Copies
Training Center
Bulk Discounts
New! Military Discounts
Mail & Fax Orders

Advocacy Library

Cool Tools
Doing Your Homework
Ask the Advocate
Newsletter Archives
Short Course Series
Success Stories

Law Library

IDEA 2004
No Child Left Behind
McKinney-Vento Homeless
Section 504
Fed Court Complaints


American Indian
Assistive Technology
Autism Spectrum
Behavior & Discipline
College/Continuing Ed
Due Process
Early Intervention (Part C)
Episodic, such as
   Allergies, Asthma, etc

Future Planning
High-Stakes Tests
Homeless Children
IDEA 2004
Identification & Child Find
Juvenile Justice
Law School & Clinics
Letters & Paper Trails
Military / DOD
Parental Protections
PE and Adapted PE
Privacy & Records
Procedural Safeguards
Progress Monitoring
Related Services
Research Based Instruction
Response to Intervention (RTI)
School Report Cards
Section 504
Teachers & Principals
Twice Exceptional (2e)
VA Special Education

Resources & Directories

Advocate's Bookstore
Advocacy Resources
  Disability Groups
  State DOEs
  State PTIs
Free Flyers
Free Pubs
Free Newsletters
Legal & Advocacy
   Legal Terms
   Assessment Terms
Best School Websites


Tests & Assessments
Assessing Reading Difficulties and Disabilities

Question 3.

I'm concerned about my child's reading. What reading skills should he have?


Reading skills include:

Letters (LTRS): Your child should identify letter names and sounds, or point to letters in response to letter names or sounds.

Phonological Awareness (PA): Phonemic awareness is an umbrella term that refers to the awareness of individual sounds in words. It includes skills at the word, syllable, and individual sound level. This skill serves as the foundation for learning to read.

In tests of phonological awareness your child rhymes words, segments sounds in words, blends sounds, and identifies sounds. The ability to perceive and manipulate individual sounds is most important.

Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN): Your child names colors, objects, letters, or numbers in series. Letter naming is the most important skill for reading.

Letter & Word Identification (L/W/ID): Your child recognizes regular and irregular words in a list. Younger children and poor readers recognize letters.

Work Attack (WA): Your child recognizes nonsense words. Nonsense words are made-up words that assess skill with phonics.

Reading Vocabulary (RV): Your child provides antonyms, synonyms, or complete analogies in response to written words.

Reading Comprehension (RC): Your child answers open-ended or multiple-choice questions, points to pictures, or fills in missing words. Different methods for assessing comprehension may result in different scores, depending on your child's profile.

Fluency and Automaticity (FL/AU): Your child reads passages aloud while being timed. Tests of automaticity and accuracy require your child to read real words and/o nonsense words while being timed.

Listening Comprehension (LC): Your child answers questions based on passages that are read to him. LC can provide important information about comprehension difficulties.

No test measures all reading skills. Different tests measure different skills.

Legal Resource

Wrightslaw: All About Tests and Assessments, 2nd Edition Chapter 6 - Reading Assessments

Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition


20 U.S.C.§ 1401(30)

20 U.S.C.§ 1414

20 U.S.C.§ 1414(b)(6)

Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 55, footnote 47. Page 301.

IDEA Regulations

34 C.F.R. §300.301

34 C.F.R. §300.307

34 C.F.R. §300.309(a)(1)

Additional Resources

CHART: Tests that Measure Reading Skills in Nonverbal Children

CHART: Reading Tests and the Skills They Measure

Reading Tests: What They Measure...and Don't Measure

The Root of the Problem? Rock-Bottom Reading Skills?

New! A Guide to Helping Your Child at Home: Developing Foundational Skills in Reading and Writing

4 Great Reading Definitions in NCLB

Reading at Wrightslaw

State Special Education Regulations and Guidelines. You will find your specific state regulations at your State Department of Education website. Use the Wrightslaw Yellow Pages for Kids with Disabilities to locate your state site.

Back to the Pop-Up

Print this page

Email Newsletter icon, E-mail Newsletter icon, Email List icon, E-mail List icon The Special Ed Advocate: It's Free!


Wrightslaw: Special Education Legal Developments and Cases 2017, by Pam and Pete Wright
About the Book

Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, by Pam and Pete Wright
About the Book

Wrightslaw: All About IEPs
About the Book

Wrightslaw: All About Tests and Assessments
About the Book

Surviving Due Process: Stephen Jeffers v. School Board
About the DVD Video


Copyright © 1998-2019, Peter W. D. Wright and Pamela Darr Wright. All rights reserved.

Contact Us | Press Mission l Our Awards l Privacy Policy l Disclaimer l Site Map