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The National Council on Disability (NCD) is seeking your feedback on the attached draft strategic action plan entitled Closing the Gap: A Ten Point Strategy for the Next Decade of Disability Civil Rights Enforcement.
Please send your comments by September 30th to Kathleen Blank at NCD (1331 F Street, N.W., Suite 1050, Washington D.C. 20004; email: email@example.com; fax: (202) 272-2022) so that NCD may review and incorporate your comments in the final version of the plan. An electronic response version of the draft plan is posted on NCD’s website at http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/gap.html.
The new millennium is just getting underway as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) celebrates its tenth anniversary. People with disabilities, and indeed all our friends in civil and human rights movements everywhere, have much to celebrate!
In a mere decade, the ADA has made a lasting mark on our nation, and on the world. With the ADA, America reaffirmed its national commitment to full equality and inclusion for people with disabilities. The promise of the ADA has inspired hope, not only for people with disabilities, but for people everywhere that their dreams of equality of opportunity, inclusion and independence will be realized.
As the ADA begins its second decade, the signs are all around us of how far we have come, and at the same time, of how very far we still must go. The ADA and other important disability rights laws promised an end to exclusion and segregation and a future of inclusion and integration. It is clear that we have not come far enough on the road to inclusion. Children with disabilities continue to be denied the educational services they need and the law requires. Qualified workers with disabilities continue to be turned away on the basis of prejudice. People with mobility impairments still cannot rely on accessible transportation from day to day.
It’s time to close the gap. To that end, the recent work of the National Council on Disability (NCD) has focused on the enforcement of disability rights laws by the federal government. Through our studies of federal enforcement efforts, our overall assessment is that the federal enforcement of disability rights laws has been disappointingly weak.
There has been no overall federal strategy for enforcement, drastically inadequate resources allocated by Congress, and repeated failures of enforcement agencies to take strong stances and follow through on blatant and persistent violations of the law. The law is not being enforced as strongly as it needs to be, and as a result many continue to be left behind in the shadows of segregation and discrimination.
In response to this finding, NCD convened two meetings this year of people from diverse disability, cultural and professional backgrounds. The first meeting, Think Tank 2000: Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures, resulted in an action plan for implementing the law in communities where its reach often does not extend. The second meeting, the Civil Rights Retreat, resulted in the elements of a ten-year strategy for more effective civil rights enforcement. The strategic plan NCD brings to you today for comment represents the thinking of both these groups and many more people.
Closing the Gap: A Ten Point Strategy for the Next Ten Years of Disability Civil Rights Enforcement addresses the question of what it will it take to bring an end to discrimination. The strategy recognizes that no civil or human rights movement, including disability rights, can rely on the government alone to fulfill the law’s intent.
The law is a tool, but people are the power behind real change.
People must push for implementation and enforcement using traditional and creative avenues to achieve the goal. This strategic action plan engages both avenues. The traditional approaches are aimed at sending a clear message to government about the people’s expectations of enforcement and the role of government in carrying it out. The creative approaches rely upon educating, energizing and mobilizing people – within and outside civil and human rights organizations everywhere – to recognize our common stake in creating equal opportunity for all and to work together to make it a reality.
What is common to both approaches is that each depends on people: people taking charge of their destinies, people committing themselves to the struggle, and people finding the leadership and the resources to achieve their dreams.
The passage of the ADA and all the other disability rights laws was only the beginning of our empowerment. These laws opened the door, but they did not take down the walls. Laws cannot take down walls, but people can. Now we, people with disabilities and our friends, must walk through the door and bring with us all who have been left behind.
We are excited that you have joined us to reflect on this plan, tell us how it can work, and what more must be done so that it speaks to people at every level. We look forward to your feedback and to working with you to achieve tremendous gains in the next ten years!
CLOSING THE GAP:
A TEN POINT STRATEGY FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS OF DISABILITY CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT
August 10, 2000
NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY
In 1996, 300 disability leaders at a national summit on disability policy in Dallas, Texas called for an end to discrimination and more vigorous enforcement of disability civil rights laws. These same leaders charged the National Council on Disability (NCD) to work with the responsible federal agencies toward achieving that goal. By 1996, NCD had already published several reports documenting indicators of weak enforcement and its impacts, particularly on communities of people with disabilities from diverse cultures.
After the summit, NCD examined the practices and track records of federal agencies charged with enforcing major federal disability rights laws. In a series of reports entitled Unequal Protection Under Law, NCD documented findings and recommendations on the federal enforcement of the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Each report showed that despite great strides toward equality, people with disabilities still deal with major ongoing barriers of discrimination and the consequences of weak federal enforcement.
year in May, NCD convened Think Tank 2000: Advancing the Civil and
Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. This
group of experts from diverse cultural, professional and disability backgrounds
was charged with developing action steps for fully implementing disability
rights laws at the community level for people from diverse cultures and
other under-served groups. Within a month after this meeting, NCD convened
a second group, the Civil Rights Retreat, to build upon the Think
Tank 2000 plan of action and the Unequal Protection Under Law reports.
These experts, also from diverse cultural, professional and disability
backgrounds, were charged with mapping out the elements of a ten-year
strategy for more effective civil rights
resulting ten-point strategy represents a collective effort by people
from many diverse backgrounds to reach past their own community perspectives
to understand and lend a hand to one another on the road to full equality.
They realized that to make a difference, the plan must speak to people
across the boundaries of disability, race,
To succeed, the plan must inspire leaders who not only can bring together people from many different civil and human rights perspectives, but who can inspire them to unified action. For it is people – from every community in the land and every station in life – acting together from a common vision of equality, who will keep the promise of inclusion, independence and equal opportunity for all.
II. PROPOSED STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN
The reality of inclusion and equal opportunity for all can only be attained through collaboration and cooperation at all levels, inspired by bold and enlightened leadership.
from all public and private sector interest groups – the Administration,
the Congress, grassroots advocates, state and local public agencies, education,
business, religious, professional and civic organizations - must come
together and decide what each group can and should do to get us there.
Organizations such as the National Council on Disability and the U.S.
Commission on Civil Rights will continue to articulate with increasing
clarity the policy goals before us. Others will be catalysts and
ACTION STEP 1: Build Bridges: Equality is Everybody’s Business.
people from every disability, human and civil rights movement around their
shared passion for equality and create a common agenda for full inclusion.
Affirmative outreach to people who share a common commitment to civil
and human rights will create new alliances from which new leadership and
powerful strategies for change can
(a) Understand Each Other – Hold workshops, conferences and conventions where members at every level (national, state and grassroots) of the various civil rights constituencies can regularly exchange views and share experiences.
(b) Develop a Common Agenda – Survey civil and human rights organizations of all kinds to identify national and grassroots organizations willing to collaborate on developing a common agenda and shared goals in the areas of civil rights issue-identification, policy-development, monitoring, litigation and advocacy.
(c) Mobilize for Action – Support the emergence of leadership and cross-cultural action coalitions at the national, state and local levels around specific strategies to advance the implementation and enforcement of civil and human rights laws.
(d) Think Globally - Broaden the membership and work of coalitions through international outreach to disability, civil and human rights advocates with similar values and goals. Invite marginalized and emerging groups lacking civil and human rights protections to join the movement.
ACTION STEP 2: Know What to Do and How to Do It: Knowledge is Power.
competent, accessible and low-cost information and training impart the
skills to effectively fight discrimination. Cross-cultural coalitions
of knowledge and technical experts are needed to develop multi-format,
multi-language information and training systems (on-line and traditional)
for identifying, evaluating and applying the
(a) Accommodate the needs of all users around accessing, understanding and applying information (i.e., multiple languages, multiple information presentation formats, and multiple levels of data complexity.)
(b) Be interactive (responsive to user questions);
(c) Provide broad access to cross-referenced information on civil rights implementation and enforcement so people can find the resources they need to access their rights and where to locate these resources.
(d) Elicit continuous feedback from consumers and users so that systems are continually redesigned to meet consumers’ changing needs.
creating training and information systems everyone can use, interested
action groups must devise strategies for ending the digital divide.
This includes getting the federal government to enforce technology access
laws. The goal is an end to all barriers based on disability, cultural
difference or income, and equal access to present and future
ACTION STEP 3: Elect a Disability-Friendly President and Congress to Fix What Needs Fixing.
Action coalitions across disability and other civil and human rights groups should bring people together to initiate and support the following measures:
(a) Ask for Commitments - Ask all candidates for political office to publicly declare their philosophies on civil rights and their commitments to enforcement. Use the power of the disability community vote to elicit public declarations from political candidates.
(b) Make Allies - Develop ongoing relationships with members of Congress, state legislators, and key legislative and executive branch staff at the federal, state and local levels. Develop strategies for engaging the disability and civil rights communities in key Congressional and state government committees and other political activities geared to effective civil rights enforcement.
(c) Tell Them the Bottom Line - Conduct a broad and bipartisan education outreach strategy on the goals of inclusion and independence and the vital importance of:
for the full implementation and enforcement of all existing civil rights
laws, including adequate funding for enforcement;
(d) Get the Word Out - Use the most advanced grassroots organizing and notification techniques to:
detailed information on legislators’ voting records and other public stands
on civil rights related issues; and
Tell it Like it Is - Create and implement a Civil and Human Rights
Impact Statement (pursuant to a statutory requirement or stakeholder monitoring)
like the well-known Environmental Impact Statement, which spells out implications
of proposed legislation on the rights and opportunities available to Americans
with disabilities and other
(f) Make Democracy Work: Participate – Action coalitions across the country should organize their members to:
ACTION STEP 4: Raise the Money and the Bar on Federal Enforcement.
Pressure for effective enforcement must come not just from the bottom up, but also from the top down. Strong leadership must also come from the President in setting a standard of greater federal commitment to deliver on the promises of disability and other civil rights laws. The President should exercise leadership to:
(a) Give disability issues high visibility within the Administration. Disability issues must have strong and visible priority at the highest level in the White House. One possibility would be for the President to appoint a strong advisor/spokesperson, similar to the AIDS czar, to speak for the President on all issues affecting disability policy. A function of this spokesperson could be to coordinate and integrate activities of all White House “policy and political” offices, as well as all federal agencies responsible for administering and enforcing disability rights laws and policy. Another function could be to use the bully pulpit of the White House to call attention to critical civil and human rights issues facing the disability community.
(b) Get the Federal Act Together – The President should direct the U.S. Attorney General to:
bold leadership in developing a plan for systematically implementing the
recommendations of the Unequal Protection Under Law reports.
(c) Allocate money for enforcement – Resources for enforcement are the joint responsibility of the President, who establishes the vision, the Congress, which appropriates funds for the agencies to carry out their enforcement mandates, the executive branch agencies, which request the necessary resources to enforce civil rights as the law requires, and the public, which gives input on what the enforcement spending priorities should be. More funds must be targeted for specific federal enforcement activities, and especially for expanding, improving, and ensuring the quantity, quality and cultural competence of direct public interface services, (i.e., investigative, legal, technical and educational).
(d) Require Accountability – The President should require federal enforcement agencies to disclose their enforcement plans and activities to the public for feedback. Agency enforcement plans should be published periodically in the languages appropriate to their constituent communities. Stakeholder groups must be involved in giving feedback to the agencies on their enforcement plans, which should address the following:
- The agency’s enforcement mission, goals, and objectives, including performance measures for meeting objectives;
and other resource allocations for civil rights enforcement;
for obtaining and using community input and feedback on enforcement methods
ACTION STEP 5: Publicly Monitor Agency Accountability.
people have a stake in civil rights enforcement. When it comes to
effective enforcement, the only thing that counts more than well-informed
constituencies are their ongoing demands for accountability. Monitoring
groups typically consist of stakeholders selected for their interest in
and knowledge of the agency or statute in question.
(a) Review and provide feedback on the target agency’s enforcement record as compared to its enforcement plan;
(b) Participate in assessing the agency activities against the performance standards/ outcome measures used by the target agency for monitoring progress toward civil rights compliance;
(c) Insist that sanctions be applied to entities shown to engage in persistent discriminatory practices and fail in fulfilling corrective action plan measures.
(d) Identify and publicize the target agency’s failures to meet either statutory or enforcement plan requirements as to timelines, procedures, reporting and other matters.
(e) Counter political resistance to vigorous enforcement by publicizing the grounds for agency enforcement and upholding the target agency’s enforcement mandate.
(f) Raise enforcement issues of national and international importance to the attention of federal administration officials.
ACTION STEP 6: Win in Court and Win the Courts Over.
Action coalitions must mobilize across civil and human rights groups to carry out a comprehensive strategy for making legal resources available to:
(a) Give People Access To The Courts –The cost of litigation is beyond the financial reach of many, acutely affecting those from low-income communities who most need the protections of the law. Identify and create funding mechanisms to put competent legal representation within the reach of those who need it.
(b) Support Litigators - Create and maintain document repositories including brief banks, pleadings, supporting memoranda of law, unpublished opinions, administrative law decisions, settlement agreements and other documents useful to attorneys in evaluating and arguing civil rights cases.
Make it Worth It - Pursue all available sources of funding to pay
civil rights litigators and other providers of legal services (i.e., paralegals,
mediators, etc.) for people with disabilities. Sources include legal
services and protection and advocacy funds provided by the Federal government,
attorney fee awards, damage awards, pro bono law firm programs, law school
clinics, and damages available under state human rights laws that can
be joined with the ADA, IDEA and other laws in civil rights suits.
Train Interested Lawyers - Help prepare members of the private bar
to take on disability, civil and human rights cases by:
and cultivating a disability bar with broad representation from all cultures
and segments of the disability community.
(e) Profile Cases to Win – Identify and post as a litigation aid the elements of “good cases,” the kind that when tried and won can help to redirect the course of negative case law.
(f) Foster Collaboration across Legal Systems – Work with legislators and lawyers to ensure the full protection of people’s human and civil rights from the local to the national level. Special attention must be given to working with the sovereign tribal governments to craft tribal laws protecting the civil and human rights of Native American people with disabilities.
(g) Put Disability-Friendly Judges on the Bench - Develop and implement a strategy for nominating and/or electing Supreme Court and lower court judges who uphold the values of the ADA.
ACTION STEP 7: Uphold the Spirit and Intent of the Law in Every Settlement.
Voluntary settlement mechanisms, including all forms of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) used in disability and other civil and human rights cases, should:
(a) Ensure that voluntary settlement mechanisms (mediation, arbitration, conciliation and other forms of negotiated settlement) operate on a level playing field and uphold the protections of the law.
Use people from various disability, cultural and civil rights communities
trained as mediators, facilitators and settlement agents.
(c) Ensure that all mediators, facilitators and settlement agents are familiar with the issues raised by the cases in which they participate.
(d) Ensure that complainants/parties, who on their own lack the experience or skills to present their positions effectively, are assisted by qualified individuals and entities.
ACTION STEP 8: Stand Up to Negative Press and Win the Media Battle.
the public about the nature of discrimination and the meaning of equality.
Discrimination against people with disabilities is perpetuated when the
media reinforce false notions (i.e., reasonable accommodation means ‘special
privileges,’) and stereotypes (i.e., people labeled with mental illness
are highly disposed to violence) in the
Only when the public understands that equal opportunity depends upon a level playing field will the final barriers to inclusion come down. Action groups within the civil and human rights communities need creative strategies for winning the media battle:
(a) Target people within the disability and civil rights communities who work in the media, have media connections or experience, or are simply interested in civil and human rights issues as allies in getting out the truth on disability issues.
(b) Become known to media personalities as visible and friendly sources of information and comment on developing disability and civil rights issues.
(c) Seek opportunities for regular coverage of issues from a disability rights perspective in various media; identify individuals with the ability to do such media work on local levels.
(d) Bring positive stories to the media’s attention about the ADA and other civil rights statutes.
(e) Respond forcefully and immediately to erroneous or unfair stories and statements appearing in the press.
(f) Identify those within the media industry who use reasonable accommodations, but may not publicly identify as having a disability, to suggest the role civil rights protections play in creating meaningful opportunities for capable people.
(g) Push for a new category of recognition for excellence in disability rights coverage within an existing national award in journalism, television or filmmaking.
ACTION STEP 9: Acknowledge Those Who Deliver on the Promise.
As important as holding accountable those who disregard or devalue civil rights is honoring those who uphold the values of equality of opportunity and inclusion. Action coalitions across disability and other civil and human rights groups should bring people together to pursue this strategy on at least two levels:
(a) Support public recognition and acclaim – Encourage major awards for excellence administered by prestigious public or private groups, (i.e., Malcolm Baldridge awards) to include disability as an award criterion to publicly promote the value of inclusion.
(b) Support leaders of change – Publicize the practices of school systems, businesses, and other public and private organizations that support the civil and human rights of the groups they serve. These practices can include providing reasonable accommodations for employees and consumers, providing accessible web sites and other universally-designed products and services, and any other activities demonstrating commitment to inclusion and full participation. Persuade coalition members to support and acknowledge all organizations having positive civil rights track records.
ACTION STEP 10: Engage New Leaders with Disabilities.
Movements cannot thrive without replenishing their leadership and resources. Identifying, inviting, training and supporting young and other emerging leaders with disabilities from all cultures are core coalition activities. Action coalitions across disability and other civil and human rights groups should ensure ongoing progress into the future by:
Involving youth and other emerging leaders in coalition civil rights
Sponsoring leadership activities and curricula in elementary and
secondary schools, as well as colleges and universities;
(c) Promoting essay and other civic contests, service awards and other activities for youth and other emerging leaders in the community;
Conducting leadership and training institutes promoting civil rights
and mainstream leadership development; and
(e) Establishing youth chapters and affiliates within all coalition member organizations.
The great civil and human rights laws of this country have spurred a new era of progress for the nation. Despite many enforcement problems, great strides have been made. How much greater the progress will be then as systemic and other artificial barriers are overcome.
The strategic actions having the greatest long-term impact will be those geared to strengthening enforcement capacity from the federal to the local level, clarifying, protecting and enhancing the provisions of civil rights laws, and supporting political candidates who publicly commit to delivering on the promises of those laws. However important they have been and will continue to be, the laws are only tools.
The driving force for change comes from the people and their unified action to make the vision of the law a reality in our daily lives.
The purpose of this plan is to promote the empowerment necessary to achieve full equality of opportunity for all people living in this country. A sense of mission among those who have a stake in fully implementing civil rights laws will forge bonds and generate momentum among people across disability, cultural and advocacy groups to advance the status of any marginalized group in society. Ultimately, it will unleash the action needed at all levels to deliver on the promise of equality.
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